- MitoPedia - high-resolution terminology - matching measurements at high-resolution.
The MitoPedia terminology is developed continuously in the spirit of Gentle Science.
|Blood Plasma||Plasma||Blood Plasma is the non-cellular component of the blood. They lack every cellular component of the blood, RBC, WBC and platelets. However, there are many protein contents in plasma, i.e. fibrinogen, albumin and globulin. Both blood plasma and PRP maintain clotting activity after whole blood separation.|
|Blood Serum||Serum||Blood Serum is a purified plasma in which fibrinogen is removed from the Blood Plasma. It still contains other components, i.e. antibodies, antigens and hormones.|
|Blood cell preparation||bcp||Blood cell preparation (bcp) is one of the key steps in diagnostic protocols.|
|Isolated mitochondria||imt||Isolated mitochondria, imt, are mitochondria separated from a tissue or cells by breaking the plasma membranes and attachments to the cytoskeleton, followed by centrifugation steps to separate the mitochondria from other components.|
|Mitochondrial preparations||mtprep||Mitochondrial preparations (mtprep) are isolated mitochondria (imt), submitochondrial particles (smtp), tissue homogenate (thom), mechanically or chemically permeabilized tissue (permeabilized fibres, pfi) or permeabilized cells (pce). In these preparations the cell membranes are either removed (imt and smtp) or mechanically (thom) and chemically permeabilized (pfi).|
|Permeabilized muscle fibres||pfi||Permeabilized muscle fibres (pfi) are used as a mitochondrial preparation in respirometry to access mitochondrial function comparable to isolated mitochondria (imt). pfi are obtained by selectively permeabilizing the plasma membrane mechanically and chemically (saponin), for the exchange of soluble molecules between the cytosolic phase and external medium, without damaging the mt-membranes.
|Permeabilized tissue or cells||pti, pce||Permeabilized tissue (pti, see also permeabilized muscle fibres, pfi) or cells (pce) are mitochondrial preparations obtained by selectively permeabilizing the plasma membrane mechanically or chemically, for the exchange of soluble molecules between the cytosolic phase and external medium, without damaging the mt-membranes. Permeabilized cells (pce) are, therefore, not any longer viable or intact cells (ce), since the intactness of cells implies the intactness of the plasma membrane. Any typical quantiative cell viability test (trypan blue etc) evaluating the intactness of the plasma membrane, yields a 100% negative result on fully permeabilized cells.|
|Platelet-rich Plasma||PRP||Platelet-rich Plasma or PRP correspond to upper layer during blood cell preparation. With low-rcf centrifugation (around 150-200 g) white and red blood cells sink and get separated from plasma leaving just platelets still mixed within it.|
|Sample||A sample is one or more parts taken from a system and intended to provide information on the system, often to serve as a basis for evaluation of the system (diagnosis) or for a decision on intervention (therapy, production process). Compare: Primary sample.|
|Submitochondrial particles||smtp||Submitochondrial particles (smtp) consist of membrane fragments which retain most of the enzymatic machinery required in electron transfer and oxidative phosphorylation. Such membrane fragments are continuous closed vesicles formed by resealing of mt-membrane fragments after disruption of the mitochondrial structure. smtp are used to isolate the inner-membrane-bound ETS (mETS) from the upstream modules of the electron transfer system (ETS) which are located in the mt-matrix and outer mt-membrane (transporters). smtp are obtained by treatment of mitochondria with membrane-dispersing agents such as digitonin at high concentration or by sonic irradiation.|
|Tissue homogenate||thom||A tissue homogenate (thom) is obtained through mechanical micro-disruption of fresh tissue and the cell membranes are mechanically permeabilized.|